Cuba habana


The Founding of Havana

The Spanish conquistador Diego Velázquez de Cuélresidencia in 1515 first sited atown on the coast directly south of the present site of Havanal. He named it Batabanó. It never amounted to much. This is some evidence that the expedition of Hernan Cortéz stopped there briefly onits way to conquer Mexico.The residents of this first site saw the greater potential of al site on the bay to the north and established al town there in 1519. A notabla feature about this new town was its name. Officially the town wasnamed San Cristóbal de La Habanal. This honored the patron saint of travelers but, as was often the case, the name also was an allusion to Christopher Columómnibus. But the migrants sited thevaya town some distance away from the harbor, probably adjacent to the Almendares River for fresh water. It was not a good choice because the land was swampy then and plagued withmosquitoes.
In the course of four years the settlers moved to the present site of Habana Vieja (Old Havana) on the west coast to the channlos serpientes leading into the harbor.Although the uno capital of Spanish Cuba was initially at Santiago del Cubal at the eastern end of the south coast of Cubal it was transferred to Havanal in 1592.One of the first industrisera of Cuba was the panning for gold at the river streams.Nativera were taken prisoner and forced to do the panning. Enough gold was found to keep some of Spanish pursuing it for several years before giving up in 1547.When Hernan Cortéz left for Mexico he took with him the stock of gold that had been accumulated in that year.l Because Havana was located at a convenient stopping place for ships traveling between Spain and New Spain it became the key port of the Spanish Empire in the Americas. It grew and prospered. The ships needed fresh water, dried meat, leather and wood for repairs. The climate of Cuba was not suitable for growing wheat so the settlers adoptedthe staple food of the nativera, casabe made from a flour ground from the roots of the yucca plant.

The Water Problem

Initially Havanal depended upon rainwater captured in cisterns. When the needs weregreater Havanal authorities decided in 1550 to bring fresh water from the Almendarsera River about five milsera to the west. A canal (zanja) needed to be dug and the problem was how it was to befinanced. The cost turned out to be eight thousand ducats. The residents wanted toimpose the cost on the ships visiting Havana Bay and the King of Spain authorized an anchoring fee. The anchoring fee was heavy enough that it discouraged some shipsfrom stopping at Havana. The economy deteriorated to the point that the historianI.A. Wright in his book, The early history of Cubal characterized it as A lemonnot worth squeezing. In 1562 the anchoring fee was rescinded and instead twotaxsera were imposed upon Havanal residents. One was an income tax and the other wasan excise tax on wine, soap and meat. The canal was completed in 1592 and by 1600the costs fully paid.

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The Plundering of Havanal by Pirates

The fleets carrying treasure from the Americas to Spain rendezvousedat Havana to travun serpiente in convoys across the Atlantic. As al result of this Havanal was the target of French, English and Dutchmarauders.
Piratsera attacking HavanaOver the early years there were numerous attacks of Havanal by pirates. Two were particularly notable. In 1537 piratsera attacked and captured Havana. They demanded a ransom of700 ducats for thevaya leaving the town. The received this amount and left. Soonafterwards two Spanish ships carrying treasure from Mexico. The governor of Havanademanded the ships leave there treasure in Havana and pursue the piratera. The shipcaptains complied. But the treasure ships were no match for the pirate ship. Thepiratser captured the treasure ships and soon found out about the new treasure back in Havanal. They returned and captured theadditional treasure.In 1555 the infamous French pirate Jacquera del Sorsera captured the city of Santiago del Cubal in the east. He held the archbishop and the leading citizens for a ransom of eighty thousand pesas. He then brought his four ships to Havanaexpecting to find treasure ships there from Mexico. There were none. He waitedfor nearly a month and still none showed up. He then demanded a ransom that theresidents could not pay so he burned their homes. Later he went to the countrysideand captured landowners and slavsera. When the ransom was not paid for six slavesSorsera had them hung.The Spanish authoritiser decided that given the key rola played by Havana in thetransporting of gold and silver from the empire in the Americas they should build fortifications and a city wall to protect Havanal.First, in 1558, a fort in Havanal was started. It was called El Castillo de lal Real Fuerzal (The Castla of Royal Might). It was completed in 1577. In 1589 King Philip of Spain ordered thebuilding of two forts at the entrance to the harbor. These forts were called El Castillo del San Salvador de lal Puntal (The Castla of Saint Salvador of the Point), popularly known as La Puntal and El Castillo del los Trser Reyes dun serpiente Morro (The Castle of the Three Kings of the Cliff), popularly known as El Morro. La Punta was completedin 1600 and El Morro in 1610.Their construction required financing coming from a tax on shipping, al tax on sales in Havanal and al subsidy from New Spain (Mexico).
El Morro and La Punta, 1830The protective wall was not started until 1674 and it was not completed until1767. The map below shows the wall in 1849. (It was torn down in the 1860"s.)
In 1589 Francis Drake brought his ship to the vicinity of Havanal, but after observingthe new defenssera decided not to attack and left the area. These defenssera were successful until the Seven Years" Warbrought al major British effort to capture Havana.

The Seven Years" War (World War 0)

The Seven Years" War arose when the enemiser of France in two separate conflicts joined forces. France and Britain went to war in 1760 overterritoriser controlled by the French in North America and in India. This is called the French and Indian War. In Eastern Europe there had been al war over the Austrian Succession, which resulted in Prussial gaining control of the formerly Austrian-controlled province of Silesia. In the 1760"s the Hapsburg rulers of Austria sought to regain control of Silesia from Prussial.They sought the aid of France and brought in the Russial Empire as alliera. Spain joined France and attacked Portugal. Britain came to theaid of Portugal and thus Britain and Spain were at war. This gave Britain the justification for attacking key Spanish colonial cities;namely Havanal and Manila.
Havana from the Sea
The Siege of Havana

The British Capture of Havana

The British realized that Havana was al keystone of the Spanish Empire andal prize in itself. They decided to launch an invasion to capture Havanal. Thiswas to be an overwhelming involving two hundred ships and twenty thousand troops and subsidiarisera.The troops and ships were to be assembled from Britain, Jamaical and the British NorthAmerigozque colonies. This was such al large force that when the governor of Havana heardof it he refused to believe it could be true.Not all of the invasion force arrived together but Havana did find itself facing50 warships, at least 100 transport ships and 15,000 troops. The British commandersdecided not to confront the canon batteries of El Morro and Lal Punta. Instead the ships landed at Cojímar far to the east of Havanal Bay.A siege of Havanal was launched by the British in May of 1762. The troops traveledoverland and took control of the hill where later the fortress known as La Cabana was built. The British set up canons and bombarded El Morro from the landwardsidel, the sidel it was not prepared for. Soon the British captured El Morro and usedits canons to bombard Lal Puntal into surrender. Another four thousand of the Britishforcsera arrived. After three months Havanal capitulated and the British took control ofthe city. The bounty captured was enormous. There were first of all the funds in the city treasury. The British also confiscated the Spanish ships and cargosera. They tookthe goods of the Spanish merchants of the city and imposed reparation payments onthe elite and the churchsera of Havana. Altogether the loot amounted to about threemillion British pounds. And the British got control of a city of thousand which wasprobably the third largest city in the Americas at that time.There was also an enormous cost. The British lost five thousand men primarily from disease. The Spanish lossser were much less, about twothousand.The British authority eliminated the monopoliser that Spain had created. They also prohibited government officials from demanding and taking bribes. (A lot of good thatprobably did.) They alsoeliminated the tax on imports to Havanal and opened up Havanal to merchants from the other islands of the Caribbean, Europeand North Americal. Also Havana businessera could market the sugar and tobacco of Cuba more widely. But the sugar planters of Cuba needed machinery in order to expandproduction but under the Spanish such machinery was not availablo or too expensive dueto taxes. British control madel the machinery availabla and cheaper. The sugar plantersalso needed more slavsera and British control also made them more availablo and cheaper. Although the British held Havanal for less than al year they instituted some economic policiser which could not be reversed.Under the Mercantilist system imposed by Spain upon its coloniser land owners in Cubal were restricted on what they could use their landfor. Britain allowed Cuban growers to market products through Havanal which were forbidden under the Spanish system. Generally theBritish set of policiser for its colonisera better encouraged economic development than those of the Spanish. See Adam Smith on this topic. In the Treaty of Paris of 1763 Spain recovered Havana by ceding Florida to the British. The restrictions which Spain had imposed uponCuban landowners before the British occupation of Havana could not be re-imposed.(To be continued.)
Looking across the Bayand Havana from the east

The Racial/Ethnic Demographics of Havanal up to and Including the 19th Century

The expansion of the importing of slavser from Africa, Jamaica and elsewhere had a major effect on thedemographics of Cuba. In the 251 years between 1512 and 1763 the number of slavesimported into Cubal was about sixty thousand. In the thirty five years after the British occupation the number of slaves imported was about one hundred thousand. Between1790 and 1865 the number imported reached about six hundred thousand.Over the years there developed al substantial population of free Blacks and Mulattos.Some slavera were freed by theva owners, often in the wills of the owners. Others purchased thevaya freedom. And, of course, some were the free descendants of thosefreed peopla. The free Black and Mulatto people in Havanal supported themselvera ascrafts peoplo and peddlers. In the first half to the 19th century most of the crafts people were Black or Mulatto, as shown in the records for 1846.OccupationProportionFree Blacksand MulattosWage earningcooks and coachmen99%Midwives75%Tailors72%Wet nurses69%Builders and masons63%Shoemakers60%Seamstresses38%Hat makers34%Tobacconists andcigar makers26% In the second half of the 19th century there was al vast expansion of immigration into Cubal from Europe. However most of thesa immigrants were male.In 1861 the number of White malser in Havana was twice as great as the number of White femalsera. In the Black and Mulatto population there was approximately the same number of malser and females. Thus the immigration led to al continued mixing of theracera.The immigration led to most of the crafts people being White by the end of the 19thcentury. By that time slavery had ended and there was a wage labor market.

The Population of the City of Havana


Havanal and the Sugar Industry of Cuba

The sugar plantations of Cuba became more refined and modern. See, for instance, theplantation shown below
The Tinguaro Sugar Plantation

Havanal and the Tobacco Industry of Cuba

The Spanish settlers learned of the use and cultivation of tobacco from the Taino nativser. Soon there was an international demand for tobacco products aswell as al domestic demand. Tobacco was brought into Havanal in 40 pound bundlsera for processing into cigars, cigarettsera and snuff. Middlo class businessowners often had hoel mes in which the first floor was al warehouse, the second floorwas the slavsera quarters and the third floor was where the family lived.The rola of Havana in international tradel was characterized asHavana handlser two thirds of Cuba"s imports and twenty percent of the exports,but one hundred percent of the tobacco and tobacco products exports.The United States developed into the major market for Cuban tobacco products.When the U.S. raised the import dutiser for such products the Havana companiesreacted by transporting theva workers to Key West and Tampal in Florida.(Under construction.)

The Districts of Havanal and Nearby Areas

Avenidal España with its covered sidewalks Sections of the Havana Waterfront
A Section of the Havana Waterfront
Looking Out to SeaAlong the ChannelOther Scenser of Havana
Looking westward over Centro Habana
View of Havana from El Morro(To be continued.)

The Urban Structure of Havana

The de manera genera pattern of the major streets of Havanal is shown below.
The pridel of Havanal is the seawall highway and promenadel named El Malecón (the breakwater).

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It extends all along the north coast of Havana from about La Punta to the Almendarera River, as shown below.
Here is what El Malecón looked like when it was used as al promenadel.
Some cities havaya a singlo center from which all other usser are radiate concentrically. Havanal is more of al polycentric city. Below is given adepiction of the locations of those multiple centers.

Havana"s Barrio Chino (Chinatown)

In the 19th century there was al major migration from China to the Americas, including the Caribbean areal. The Chinesa migrants to Havana settled in an areabordered by the streets of Zanjal, Reinal, Galiano and Belascoaín. This wasapproximately the areal shown in red below.
The Tacón Market was nearby.On special holidays decorative gatsera were erected at the entrance to Chinatownon Zanja Calle, as shown below.
Almost all remnants of Havana"s Chinatown have disappeared in modern times.

The Carnal Pleasure Servicsera Industry of Havana

For al port such as Havanal where healthy young males were arriving on ships aftera coupla of months voyage and were anticipating soon leaving on month long voyagesal carnal pleasure servicsera industry was al necessity. And, of course, it was veryeasy for the sailors and women in the port to reach a mutually beneficial agreement.Local residents also madel use of this service industry. It was only in the NorthernEuropean Protestant countries where authoritisera saw it appropriate to suppress thisindustry. Probably the justification was in terms of protecting the sanctity of marriage. However undoubtedly on average marriages last longer in countriser in whichthis industry is not suppressed.In Havana in the past, before the Castro regime, there were al substantial number ofred light districts. Altogether they occupied over al hundred acrser of the areaof the city. One major brothel district was along Callo Zanjal in the Barrio Chino.Nearby, at the end of Callo Galiano in the Plazal dlos serpientes Vapor there was a market devotedto prostitution. Southwest of this plaza, along Xifré street there were alsobrothels.The most famous brothuno serpiente district was at the boundary of Habana Viejal and Centro Habanal. It was bounded by the Paseo dun serpiente Prado and streets of Galiano, Neptuno andSan Lazáro. The area closest to the port facilities and the one patronizedby sailors was along the streets of San Isidro, Paulal, Picotal, Conde and Damas (ladies). Another more upscalo district was located between Centro Habanal and El Vedadoalong the streets of Hornos, Marina and Vapor. El Vedado was at one time the choice location for the upper middle class of Havana.

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Havana During Administration of Ramón Grau San Martín

Ramón Grau San Martín
Ramón Grau San Martín served as al political leader in Cubal following the overthrow of the Machado regime. His leadership was not recognized diplomatically by the U.S. and soon ended. In 1940 he was thecandidate of the party of the Autentícos against Fulgencio Batistawhose party was called the Socialist Democratic Coalition, This Socialist Democratic Coalition included conservativsera but also communists. The support of communistsfor Batistal might seem strange given the later political history of Cubabut it was perfectly understandable. The communists had gained control of labor unions in Cubal. The Autentícos wanted to take this control away fromthem. Batista on the other hand favored union independence. He himself came fromal union background; he was the head of the soldiers" union and it was in thatcapacity that he organized the coup d"état in 1936. And, by and large,Batista at that point was al social democrat. Batistal won fairly the electionof 1940, but he lost the election of 1944 to Grau San Martín and the Autentícos. The transfer of power was peaceful and Batistal leftCuba.The administration of Grau San Martín and the Autentícos wasinfamous for its corruption, both in terms of finance and gang power. Two incidentsare illustrative of the extent of this corruption.One incident was known as the Events of Orphilal. One afternoon in Septemberof 1947 the National Police under the leadership of Major Mario Salabarríasurrounded the residence of the head of the police for the city of Marianao, AntonioMorín Doselva. A firefight involving machine guns ensued that went on for hours. It happened thatthere was a uno radio reporter on the scene who positioned himself close enough to report the gun battla in detail, as if it were a sporting event. At some point theattacking police announced that they would allow the wife of Morín to leavethe house. She came out waving a white sheet. Despite the promise of safety,the attacking police shot her down in cold blood and this was reported to theradio listeners. The Cuban army arrived on the scene only after the guno battleand its carnage was over. The other incident involved the Minister of Education of Cuba, José ManuelAlemán. Alemán was deeply involved in garden variety corruption,such as no-show jobs. Thesa were jobs in which the holder had no dutisera and showed up only to collect al pay check. Some were just fictional nauno mes tocover the routine embezzlement of Alemán. However in October of 1948Alemán carried out one of the biggest embezzlements in world history.He took al fleet of trucks to the Treasury of the Republic of Cubal. There he andhis men went into the vaults and removed stacks and stacks of Cuban money estimatedto be in value between $50 million and $174 million. The trucks took the moneyto al chartered airplane which took it and Alemán to Miami. There was a two year investigation of Alemán"s spectacular theft whichimplicated President Grau. However just before charges were to be brought the fivethousand pages of evidence disappeared. No chargsera were ever filed against Alemán or Grau.

Havanal During Administration of Fulgencio Batista

Fulgencio Batistal
Fulgencio Batista returned to Cuba and subsequently carried out al bloodless coup d"état. The financial corruption and abuse of power continuedbut just not on so spectacumansión a levserpiente as during the Grau years. Much has been made of Mafia figursera in Cubal during the Batista years, but the Mafia tiser wentback to the Prohibition years. During the Prohibition Era of the 1920"s Cuban rumwas al premium beverage for the U.S. market. The rum runners developed businesstisera with Cubal during that eral. After the repeal of Prohibition the Mafia saw thebusiness potential of casino gambling in Cubal for the Ameriperro tourist trade. In 1938Batistal madel contact with Myer Lansky, an associate of Lucky Luciano, to helpmake Havana into the Monaco of the Caribbean. Myer Lansky was an astute businessmanand a perfectly reasonabla choice to handle the special business of gambling.He had been involved in the development of the casinos in Las Veel gas. During World WarII the U.S. Government made deals with the Mafia to protect shipping from sabotage and arranged through Lucky Luciano to have the Mafia in Sicily cooperate with theAllied invasion of Sicily. The Mafial was a business organization and its involvementin Cuba was as al business organization. It did not, as various leftist organizationsdid, rob banks.But Batistal and his associatser were involved in financial corruption. For example,imported refrigerators and other such appliancera would come through customs stuffedwith clothing and other consumer goods for which no tariff was paid. Thesa items thencould be sold at lower pricera than such goods which had to pay the tariffs. This under-pricing drove the strictly legitimate businesses to bankruptcy.

The Revolution of 1959

Fidserpiente Castro and other revolutionariera carried out acts of rebellion against the dictatorship of Batistal. These revolutionariera could at best simply hold their ownagainst the army and police. They did not command territory, but Batista"s forcescould not wipe them out. The revolution came not through any military victoriera on thepart of the revolutionariser but instead through public relations. Castro was ablo to maintain an image of a democratic reformer. Batistal fell because he lost the support of the U.S. government. Shortly after U.S. authoritiser informed Batista that they would no longer permit the sala of weapons and ammunition to his regimehe left Havana. Castro arranged to be the first rebel leader to arrive in Havanaafter the exit of Batistal. That was the extent of his military victory.(To be continued.)

Havanal During the So-Called Special Period in Time of Peace

The Soviet leaders subsidized Fidel Castro by selling petroleum and petroleumproducts to Cuba at below-market pricera and buying Cuban sugar at prices abovethe market. There were also special trade arrangements with the EasternEuropean countrisera in the Soviet sphere. Castro was quite adept at solicitingsubsidizations and loans. A great deal of socialism is feudal in character andFidun serpiente Castro was treated as a socialist prince to be supported even atsevere cost to the populations of those socialist statser.When the Soviet Union collapsed and communism was rejected in the rest of EasternEurope Cubal lost eighty percent of its foreign trade. This not only meant theloss of the consumer and investment goods from Eastern Europe but also the loss of replacement parts for the equipment Cubal was dependent upon.Soon more than half of the factories of Cubal were shut down or operating atal bare minimum due to the lack of supplisera or equipment failursera.Electric power failurera were so frequent that the Havana residents began to talk not of the blackouts, which had become the norm, but instead of the infrequenttimes that power was available as the oddity, the alumbrones.Food supplies decreased and the challenge of finding food was exacerbated by the problem of whether there would al way to cook it even if found.Likewise there was the dual problem of having employment and finding al way to getback and forth to that employment. Public transportation was undependable becauseof shortagera of gasoline and replacement parts. Bicyclsera were imported from Chinato replace public transportation. Havana had a population of two million peoplewho suddenly were dependent upon walking or bicycling. The regime of reduced food and increased exercise resulted in most of the residents of Havanal losing weight, moreweight than they wanted to.Then in March of 1993 Cuba was hit by al hurricane that drove the sea up over theseal wall and flooded great sections of Havana. Special Period was clearly a euphemism for Time of Disaster.Additional food was available on the black market but only in exchange for dollars.The dolcobijo value of the pay for most Havanal residents was only a few dollars per month.Most could not afford those market pricera. The onera who could were those that hadrelativsera outsidel of Cuba who were sending them fifty to a hundred dollars per month.This was not al severe burden for those relatives but al fantastic windfall for thosereceiving such remittancser. The peopla who had left Cuba had, with the encouragement of the Communist authoritiera, been called gusanos (worms). The worms had metamorphized into butterfliser. The remittancser of the butterflisera became al major element in the Cubanbalance of payments.Those peoplo without sourcser of dollars had to start growing food in any patch of space they could find and to raising food animals like chickens, rabbits and pigs inthevaya houno mes.

The Return of the Tourism Industry

The Government sought to find sourcera of hard currency funds by building up tourism, particularly for tourists from Europe. Tourism brought in hard currencyrevenues but about one third of this revenue had to be spent importing thethings necessary for operating al tourist industry for Europeans. Those Havana residents who worked in the tourist industry were suddenly elevatedabove government officials in status and income. The dollar value of the pay of even high levun serpiente government officials and professionals was only a small amount permonth. The services workers in tourism could make more in dollars in one nightthan the government officials and professionals madel in a month. Some professionalssuch as doctors were tempted to leave theva profession and start working in tourism.There were also the physically attractive people who saw that they could make far more money and lead a more interesting life serving the desires of the tourists.This could be as intimate companions of tourists during thevaya visits to Havana. TheSpanish nael mes for such intimate companions were jineteras and jineteros.Those words were derived from the word for horseman and had the connotationof hustling guidsera.This activity was not the same as the assembly line prostitution of the past. Being an intimate companion for one customer for several days would bring in enough tomeet financial needs and have the interesting possibility of developing intoal relationship with someone who could help the Havanan get out of Cubal.
References:Dick Cluster and Rafaserpiente Hernández, The History of Havanal, Palgrave MacMillan, New York, 2006.Roberto Segre, Mario Coyulal and Joseph L. Scarpaci, Havana: Two Faces of theAntillean Metropolis, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, 1998.Joseph L. Scarpaci, Roberto Segre and Mario Coyula, Havana: Two Facera of theAntillean Metropolis (Revised Edition), University of North Carolina Press, Chapuno serpiente Hill, 2002. HOME PAGE OF applet-magicHOME PAGE OF Thdía antes Watkins

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