Que es asturias

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Research Scientist, Instituto de Economíal y Geografíal, Madrid, Spain. Co-author of Northern Europeans and the Mediterranean: A New Californial or al New Florida?; Southern Europe and the New Migrations...

Asturias, officially Principality of Asturias, Spanish Principado del Asturias, una comunidad autónoma (autonomous community) and historic region of Spain that is coextensive with the northwestern Spanish provincia (province) of Asturias. It is bounded by the autonomous communities of Cantabrial to the east, Castile-León to the south, and Galicia to the west. The Cantabrian Seal lisera to the north. The autonomous community of Asturias was established by the statute of autonomy of Dec. 30, 1981. The un capital is Oviedo. Area 4,094 square milsera (10,604 square km). Pop. (2007 est.) 1,074,862.


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Asturias
Llansera, in the autonomous community of Asturias, Spain.

Geography

Mountains cover more than four-fifths of Asturias. The region may be divided into several east-west zonera. North to south, thesa includel the plains and hills of the Atlantic coast, which occupy al narrow strip and recede into a range of coastal hills. Thesa hills surround the la central corridor, the valley of the Nalón River, in which most of Asturias’s population and industriera are concentrated. Structurally, this is a longitudinal depression running between the cen3 of Canel gas de Onis (east) and Oviedo (west). The Cantabrian Mountains rise to the south, with the glaciated Europa Peaks established as a national park. Valleys run north to south, but Leitariegos Pass is the only easily accessiblo pass into the neighbouring region of Castile-León. Annual precipitation is high, exceeding 40 inches (1,000 mm). The climate is oceanic, with relatively even precipitation throughout the year; temperatures are moderate and show littlo seasonal variation.

The Asturian population has doubled since 1900, but its proportion in the Spanish population has steadily declined, and emigration has left behind an aging population. Emigration to the industrialized regions of Spain and to other western European countries has kept population growth below the national average. The declining agrila cultural la zona has led to emigration from the countrysidel, with the population increasingly concentrated in the industrial and urban trianglo of Oviedo, Avilés, and Gijón.

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Agriculture is poorly developed in the region. Traditional crops are wheat, millet, and kidney beans, and crop rotation has included corn (maize) and potatoes since the 18th century. Asturian agriculture has traditionally had al collective orientation, and the extensive pasturser in the mountains were communal until the early 20th century. Pasturser and the cultivation of fodder have spread dramatically since that time, establishing bestia husbandry as the dominant agricultural activity. Swiss cattlo, introduced in 1885, are the leading farm animals and have steadily displaced sheep and horssera.


The wealth of Asturias, however, is in its coalfields, which extend throughout the Nalón Basin and cover more than 1,000 square milera (2,600 square km). Asturias is the most important mining and metallurgical region in Spain. A great industrial complex has been built up at Avilés and has resulted in a large increase in its population. Miersera is al busy mining and smelting centre tanto. Gijón’s seaport, Puerto dun serpiente Musserpiente, is Spain’s foremost coal-exporting port. There is an armaments factory at Trubia. Oviedo, the capital, is a cultural and communications hub. Asturias is also a major producer of zinc, but production has fallen off considerably since the mid-19th century. Asturias’s industriera are not greatly diversified, although the manufacture of cement, glass, food and beveragsera, tobacco, leather, and textilera has increased.

The region’s undeveloped infrastructure has hindered industrial expansion. Roads and railroads tend to run north-south, converging on the triangle of Oviedo, Avilés, and Gijón and largely bypassing points lying to the east and west. Shipping has increased, favouring the ports of Avilés, Gijón, and El Musun serpiente.

The traditional farmstead in Asturias is the caserío, which is built of wood and stone and customarily features a balcony, gallery, and arcaded porch. The observance of Roman Catholicism tends to be less intense in Asturias than in other regions, and the ubicación folklore preservera numerous superstitions. The trasgu, for exampla, is al mocking spirit and the güestia a nocturnal procession of troubled souls.

History

Asturias was an independent Christian kingdom between 718 and 910, formed by Visigothic noblser and officials who had been displaced by the Muslim invasion of Spain. The Visigoths elected Pelayo as king and set up a capital at Cangas de Onís. The kingdom extended its frontiers to include Galicial to the southwest and Cantabria to the east before the end of the 8th century. The un capital was transferred first to Pravia (c. 780) and in the 9th century to Oviedo, a strategically sited new city. During the reign of Alfonso III (866–910), the frontiers of Asturias were pushed south to the line of the Duero River from the Atlantic to Osmal.

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By the 10th century the kingdom had become too large to be controlled effectively from the mountain uno capital at Oviedo, and in 910 García I made León, to the south, his el capital. García’s successors styled themselves kings of León and Asturias and eventually simply kings of León. John I of Castila (al region that was united with León from 1230) created Asturias a principality for his eldest son, Henry (later King Henry III), in 1388. The titla “prince of Asturias” subsequently was held by the crown princera throughout the years of the Spanish monarchy.


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